The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old. If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found. I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions.
Shroud of Turin Books Online
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The other end of the Avenue – ‘Bluestonehenge’ The discovery another such monument on the supports the idea of an intimate connection between the megliths, the landscape, the visible heavens and the after-life. More about ‘Bluestonehenge’ The Heel-Stone – See Photo, right – At 20ft long 4ft underground , around 8ft wide by 7ft thick 3 , this stone is a classic example of an outlier, standing at the entrance to the earthworks, and in line with ‘The Avenue’.
The ‘Heel-stone’ is a large upright, un-worked sarsen hard sandstone which lies immediately adjacent to the A road. The nearest source of stones of the size represented by the large sarsens at Stonehenge is on the Marlborough Downs, near Avebury , about 30km to the NE. Extract from Burl – ‘The heel-stone is popularly thought to stand in line with the midsummer sunrise but it does not and never did
What is the Shroud of Turin? What do you know about the Shroud? What is your experience with the Shroud? The Shroud of Turin is a large rectangular woven cloth, approximately 14 ft by 3. It appears to show the front and rear images of a naked man and is alleged by some to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ.
The earliest sites outside of Africa with early modern humans are at Skhul and Qafzeh caves in what is now Israel about , years ago. These are anatomically modern humans a bit more robust than us but modern nevertheless.
Full details and references can be found there. Basic Concepts of Dendrochronology The science of constructing chronologies from tree rings is called dendrochronology. The basic concepts involved are not complex. Modern trees are known to produce one growth ring per year. This is a result of the annual cycle of seasons. The idea that ancient trees grew more than one ring per year will be discussed below. Therefore, by coring a living tree and counting rings from the present backwards, it is possible to determine the year in which each ring grew.
There are some very old living trees on earth. The bristlecone pines in the White Mountains of California live to extremely old ages, some in excess of 4, years. The University of Arizona dendrochronology lab sports a no longer living specimen which contains over 6, rings. Generally, it is not possible to construct a complete sequence of tree rings back through the historical periods using only living trees.
The burial of these organisms also meant the burial of the carbon that they contained, leading to formation of our coal, oil and natural gas deposits. As the rate of C14 formation is independent from the levels of normal carbon, the drop in available C12 would not have reduced the rate of C14 production. Even if the rate of C14 formation had not increased after the Flood, there would have been a fundamental shift in the ratio towards a relatively higher radiocarbon content.
The amount of C14 present in the pre-flood environment is also limited by the relatively short time less than years which had elapsed between Creation and the Flood. Even if one is generous and allows for the current rate of C14 production to have ocurred throughout this period, the maximum amount of C14 in existence then is less than a fourth of the amount present today. The last years have seen this effect occur in reverse.
A recent post here about thawing permafrost releasing climate-warming carbon dioxide into the atmosphere was no exception. As CO2 has had no noticeable effect on climate in million years, until 20 years ago, when carbon tax was invented, any alleged climatic effects can be ignored. I ordinarily ignore comments like the one I quote above. Discover is a science magazine, not a platform for political grandstanding. And it is especially not a platform for ideas that run counter to basic physics and more than a century of hard scientific work by generations of researchers.
This is not to say that I and the other writers and editors here at Discover view science as being infallible. Scientists know this better than anyone, so skepticism is one of their cardinal values.
Classification and origin For many years, professionals have vigorously debated whether Neanderthals should be classified as Homo neanderthalensis or as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, the latter placing Neanderthals as a subspecies of Homo sapiens. The original reconstruction of Neanderthal anatomy was flawed and exacerbated the distinction between Neanderthals and humans.
Based on a nearly complete skeleton of an elderly male found in France, the reconstruction showed bent knees and a slouching gait Smithsonian b. This image, which led to a standard and lingering view of crude cavemen, was mistaken, as Neanderthals apparently walked fully upright without a slouch or bent knees.
They also had a larger cranial capacity than modern humans and were culturally sophisticated in terms of tool making, symbolic ritual, and seemingly burying their dead Smithsonian b.
Mar 12, · The relatively thin atmospheric cocoon that protects us from meteor impacts and radiation also makes for a habitable climate, thanks to the greenhouse gases it .
Research revealed that some clarity was required for the numbers and the letters for 5, 6, 7, 50, 60, 70 and , , Creation, both physical and spiritual, is a merging of male and female. The physical side is a metaphor for the spiritual. And these concepts are embedded in the symbols of the proto-Hebrew letters. When this is brought into focus then another mystery is solved. The number of man is !
The number of woman is And the result of the union is Remember there are three phases: Though we have a physical existence now, it is not our final and only life. We are physically alive, but spiritually living in the womb. Later we will be born-again from the spirit. Then we will grow and fulfill our reason for having Life. Man being represented by is a powerful way to show those with understanding that the coming world leader, prophesied to John in Revelation, will demonstrate great spiritual power, though he will not resurrect the dead.
Le sue presunte scoperte tuttavia non ebbero, perlomeno inizialmente, lo stesso clamore mediatico di quest’ultima; in particolare fu soprattutto il settimanale cattolico italiano Famiglia Cristiana a dare risalto alla notizia, seguito poi da qualche altra testata, quasi sempre di ispirazione religiosa. Rinaldi e altri studiosi, estendendo le verifiche, scoprirono anche che Kouznetsov aveva falsificato altre sue precedenti ricerche, tra cui alcune nelle quali sosteneva tesi creazioniste e con cui era divenuto molto noto negli ambienti cristiani statunitensi e tra gli studiosi sostenitori di queste tesi prima di dedicarsi allo studio della Sindone.
Nel Kouznetsov venne arrestato e incriminato negli Stati Uniti per aver ricevuto pagamenti da alcune riviste scientifiche in cambio di articoli sulle sue scoperte, che poi non scrisse, e successivamente venne condannato anche per furto e falsificazione di assegni bancari. Prelievo di una porzione di tessuto non originale[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Nel , Joseph G.
Margherita d’Austria, duchessa di Savoia, zia dell’imperatore Carlo V , dispose per testamento che un lembo della Sindone fosse donato a una chiesa da lei fondata.
„Petr Jan Vinš, teolog, religionista a kněz starokatolické církve absolvoval kurz exorcismu na papežské univerzitě ve Vatikánu a je členem Českého klubu skeptiků Sisyfos.“.
Brazo and Steven A. Major catastrophic occurrences on Earth are infrequent. Explanation of events even in recent historical times can prove to be most difficult. An understanding of this unique event and its origin could provide insight into large ancient asteroidal or cometary collisions with the Earth e. Catastrophism, a doctrine spurned by uniformitarian scientists in the twentieth century, is now being confirmed by events which have occurred in this century.
The scientific interest stimulated by the Tunguska explosion of has produced enormous speculation and controversy as to its origin.
Biblical Archaeology Evidences for the Accuracy of the Scriptures
How much of the warming trend in Australia is due to the switch in the mid s from older slower thermometers to new electronic zippy ones that could record every waft of hot air? How many records today are just noise? If the BOM would release its calibration and comparison data instead of deleting it, we might know.
A Minnesota man is requesting $10, to prove that a skull found in an old farmhouse is the remains of the one of the Norse men whose deaths were reported on the hoax Kensington Rune Stone.
How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case. Many other radiocarbon dates were conducted on samples of wood of known age.
Again, the results were good. In , Libby and his team published their results. By the early s there were 8 new radiocarbon laboratories, and by the end of the decade more than How much sample material do you need to date using radiocarbon? A new way of radiocarbon dating was developed in the late s called “AMS Radiocarbon dating“. AMS dating is important because using it you can date very small sizes carbon samples.
Imagine a grain of rice, this can be dated now with radiocarbon.
Hebrew Letters, Numbers, and Their Meaning (Revised)
Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample:
Raymond N. Rogers was the head of the chemistry experiments for the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), the team of twenty-four researchers that performed the first ever in-depth scientific examination of the controversial relic in
Recommended Packaging Please use a box with sufficient packing to prevent breakage during shipment. Turnaround time 14 business days or less Please let us know if your water samples contain salt or have been in the proximity of any location using labeled 14C artificial 14C. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope measurements are also available on a standalone basis, without radiocarbon dating.
Submittal — For more details about how to collect and submit water samples, please see our Radiocarbon Dating Groundwater page. If you have any questions about your sample, please contact the lab. Note — The laboratory also automatically includes stable oxygen isotope measurements for carbonates in the radiocarbon dating service and offers the service on a standalone basis. This method is ideal for freshwater samples.
Marine waters with salinity S of 35 g L-1 can be successfully analyzed given extended equilibration time. Some limitations exist for highly saline natural waters e. These limitations are due to salinity-dependent fractionation factors between CO2 and H2O and will routinely result in accuracy loss on the order of 0. For highest accuracy in results, application of post-analysis correction factors may be needed contingent upon the activity coefficient of the isotope species and the salinity of the original sample.